1. What is the active ingredient in QuikClot® gauze dressings?
The active ingredient found in QuikClot is a naturally occurring inert mineral called kaolin, which has been known for decades to clot blood. Kaolin does not contain animal or human proteins or botanicals.
2. What are QuikClot hemostatic dressings?
QuikClot products have evolved over several years. There are zeolite-based products on the market for pre-hospital
use. The kaolin-based, gauze products for hospital use (QuikClot Emergency Dressing, QuikClot 4x4, QuikClot Hemostatic Formula, QuikClot 2x2, QuikClot Combat Gauze, and QuikClot Interventional (QCI) and QuikClot Trauma Pad), represent the third and latest generation of technology in the QuikClot family of products for hemostasis. The active ingredient, kaolin is bonded to the surface of nonwoven polyester/rayon gauze for easy and familiar application.
3. How are QuikClot dressings different from surgical gauze?
Although QuikClot dressings look like and are as intuitive to use as surgical dressings, they are impregnated with kaolin, an inert mineral that has been known for centuries to initiate the clotting cascade. While surgical gauze and manual pressure more often than not initiate the clotting cascade, this process is sped up in the presence of kaolin.
4. Do QuikClot dressings work on the clotting cascade?
YES. Contact between kaolin and blood immediately initiates the clotting process by activating Factor XII.
This reaction leads to the transformation of Factor XII, Factor XI and prekallikrein to their activated forms
In addition, Factor XII can activate prekallikrein even without kaolin, but kaolin presence markedly enhanced the rate of activation.
The activation of both Factor XI and Factor XII leads to the rest of the coagulation cascade.
5. Does it work?
YES. In independent studies performed by both the US Navy and US Army comparing multiple hemostatic agents, QuikClot Combat Gauze emerged overall number one in safety and effectiveness and is now recommended as the first line of treatment for life-threatening hemorrhage on the battlefield within every branch of the US armed forces. Anecdotal reports of use so far within the hospital have been overwhelmingly positive.
6. Is it safe?
YES. Because kaolin is an inert mineral, there are no known contraindications.
7. Does it burn?
NO. The first generation of the QuikClot granular product, made from non-hydrated zeolite, was discontinued in 2008 when the hemostatic gauze formulation based on kaolin was introduced. That earlier granular product could cause exothermic reactions if not used properly.
8. Are there any allergic reactions with the use of QuikClot dressings?
Because the active ingredient in QuikClot dressings is kaolin, a naturally occurring inert mineral and not a drug, animal, or human protein there are no known contraindications.
9. What if the wound bleeds through the QuikClot dressing?
More severe and traumatic wounds may require additional dressings, in which case, multiple QuikClot dressings may be used. However it is suggested that the first dressing used remains in place while a second is applied over the first. You don’t want to disturb the clot that is forming under the first pad. Under no circumstance should a dressing be used a second time.
10. How long can I leave QuikClot dressings on the wound?
Although hemostasis is typically achieved 3- 5 minutes, sometimes it is necessary to leave the dressing in place for an extended period of time. The dressings may be left on the wound site for up to 24 hours if needed. QuikClot dressings are non-absorbable and indicated for external use only.
11. How easy are QuikClot dressings to remove?
QuikClot dressings are extremely easy to remove and will not rip when removed. Irrigation is not normally required, however if you feel more comfortable it may be utilized.
12. What are the indications for use?
QuikClot dressings are intended for temporary external use to control traumatic bleeding.
QuikClot Interventional (QCI) Hemostatic Bandage is applied topically as an adjunct to manual compression and is indicated for the local management and control of surface bleeding from vascular access sites, percutaneous catheters or tubes utilizing introducer sheaths up to 12Fr.
13. How should QuikClot dressings be stored?
QuikClot can be stored as you would store any other surgical dressings. Kaolin will remain stable in varying temperatures and in extreme heat or cold.
14. Is the active ingredient in QuikClot dressings a drug or biologic?
NO. Unlike other commonly used hemostatic agents, QuikClot dressings do not contain animal or human proteins, such as chitosan or thrombin - which can cause allergic reactions. The active ingredient in QuikClot dressings is a naturally occurring inert mineral called kaolin, which has been known for more than half a century to clot blood.
15. How do I apply QuikClot Interventional (QCI)?
16. How do I know which QuikClot dressing is right for me?
17. If kaolin comes off the dressing, are there any adverse effects?
The active ingredient in QuikClot dressings kaolin, is bonded to the nonwoven delivery material, greatly reducing the chance of any unbonded material getting into the wound. However it is possible that following intense manipulation, some kaolin could come off the gauze.
Several studies have been performed to assess the safety of the kaolin-based gauze with specific interest in addressing the potential impact of kaolin on soft tissues, vascular and nervous structures. Including standard biocompatibility studies, more than 10 studies have shown that kaolin is safe and has no negative effect on tissues and organs. Furthermore, kaolin is safe even when it comes in contact with an open vessel and no evidence of local or distal damage or thrombosis was ever discovered during pre-clinical testing. These results are well described in a recent contribution to the literature (The Journal of TRAUMA® Injury, Infection, and Critical Care • Volume 68, Number 2, February 2010) where the kaolin gauze was found to be as safe as standard surgical gauze.
For further clarification, healthcare professionals are invited to contact our Chief Medical Officer, Dr Basadonna.
Ask Dr. Basadonna
Giacomo Basadonna, MD, PhD, FACS
Professor of Surgery
UMass Medical School
18. Can I save an unused portion of QuikClot dressings for later use?
No. Once the package has been opened QuikClot loses sterility and should be used immediately. Reuse will cause risk of infection and loss of efficacy.
19. Are QuikClot dressings cleared by FDA?
20. What is the shelf-life of QuikClot dressings and are there any special storage instructions?
An unopened package of QuikClot has a shelf life of three years. The only storage direction is to not leave a pack of QuikClot in direct sunlight for extended periods of time. QuikClot can also be stored in very high or low temperatures (below freezing).